Depression in cognitive impairment in the elderly population
Relevance: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders that occurs in the practice of not only a psychiatrist, but also a neurologist, therapist and doctors of other specialties. According to epidemiological studies, the lifetime risk of developing depression is up to 10% in men and up to 20% in women [1-4]. Cognitive functions are an important and integral part of human consciousness. These include thinking, the ability to concentrate, memory, etc. Experts note that impairments in cognitive functions often accompany depression. Symptoms of cognitive disorders, according to the ICD-10 classification, are also criteria for a depressive state.
These include difficulties with decision-making, attention disorders, psychomotor disorders, etc. According to statistics, patients with depression often show disorders of cognitive functions. In particular, a combination of depression and cognitive impairment of moderate severity occurs in 27% of patients, and severe cognitive impairment - in 13% of patients with depression. For comparison: among healthy people, moderate cognitive impairment occurs in only 2% of the population [1-4]. It should also be added that in more than half of depressed patients, cognitive impairment leads to disability. Mostly people of creative specialties, as well as representatives of professions where analytical skills are required, suffer.
Thus, in this project it is planned to identify associations between the level of depression and cognitive impairment, and to study the prevalence of depression in cognitive impairment in the elderly.
Objective of the project: To study the prevalence of depression in cognitive impairment in the elderly
As a result, the solution of the set goal and objectives will receive the following results:
Also, based on the results of the study, at least 2 (two) articles and (or) reviews will be published in peer-reviewed scientific publications in the scientific direction of the project, indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science database and having a CiteScore percentile in the Scopus database of at least 35 (thirty five). And at least 1 (one) article or review in a peer-reviewed foreign or domestic edition recommended by Committee for Control in the Sphere of Education and Science.
As part of the implementation of the project for 2021, a literary review of the available information on this topic was carried out. Using the information retrieval method, modern sources and literature data regarding the research topic were found. An epidemiological analysis of the prevalence of depression was performed.
Based on the data obtained, it can be judged that in the world the share of the population suffering from depression in the world today ranges from 2% to 6%. Globally, older people (in the age group 70 and over) have a higher risk of depression compared to other age groups. The prevalence of depressive disorders in a given population is measured as age-standardized prevalence, which assumes a constant age structure for comparison between countries and over time. The figures obtained represent an attempt to provide a true estimate (beyond the established diagnosis) of the prevalence of depression based on medical, epidemiological data, surveys and meta-regression modeling.
According to the analysis of the data, the prevalence of depression exceeds 4.5 percent in the following countries: Greenland - 6.23% (most of the population is 20-24 years old), Morocco - 5.41% (most of the population is aged 50-69 years old), Iran - 5.12%, (most of the population are people aged 50-69 years old), Uganda - 4.92%, (most of the population is people over 70 years old), USA - 4.84 % (most of the population is made up of people aged 20 to 24), Finland - 4.79%, (most of the population is made up of people aged 20 to 24), Australia - 4.62% (most of the population is made up of people between the ages of 20 and 24). In countries such as Morocco, Iran, Uganda, the population aged 50-69 and 70+ predominates, while in the countries of Greenland, the USA, Finland and Australia, the population in the age group 20-24 predominates.
In such European countries as Italy - 3.46% (most of the population is over 70), Spain - 3.54% (most of the population is over 70), Germany - 3.96% (most of the population is represented persons aged 50-69 years), Great Britain - 4.12% (most of the population is represented by persons aged 30-34 years), France - 4.25% (most of the population is represented by persons aged 50-69 years), the share the spread of depression below world rates.
In Asian countries, the prevalence of depression is - Kazakhstan - 3.51% (most of the population is over 70 years old), Russia - 3.71% (most of the population is over 70 years old), China - 3.31% (most of the population are over 70 years old), Japan - 3.34% (most of the population is over 70 years old), Mongolia - 3.53% (most of the population is over 70 years old), India - 3.53% (most part of the population is made up of people over 70), Saudi Arabia - 3.54% (most of the population is made up of people aged 50-69), Turkey - 3.72% (most of the population is made up of people aged 50-69), Iraq - 3.89% (most of the population is made up of people aged 50-69 years), which is also lower than the world indicators of the most developed countries.
According to epidemiological studies, the lifetime risk of developing depression is up to 20% in men and up to 10% in women. Cognitive impairment often accompanies depression. According to statistics, patients with depression often have cognitive impairment; in 27% of patients, there is a combination of depression and moderate cognitive impairment, and in severe cognitive impairment - in 13% of patients with depression. During the analysis of data from the preliminary study (interviewing patients), tests were carried out to determine the level of depression. Standardized epidemiological instruments were used as the questionnaire. The prevalence of depression averaged 36.6% among the urban population (42% men, 58% women) and 2.17% among the rural population (39% men, 61% women). The overall prevalence of depression was 19.25%.
Since the sample size in both groups was practically the same and representative, the results are statistically significant (p-value <0.0001). According to the results of the analysis of the results of neurological tests, in general, 25.67% of patients have moderate cognitive impairment. Namely, 19.16% of women (17% of urban, 83% of rural) and 33.19% of men (25% of urban, 75% of rural) have moderate cognitive impairment.
In terms of the results obtained, the prevalence of depression among urban residents is higher than among rural residents, and more among women than among men. But cognitive impairment is more common in men than in women, and more often in men in rural areas than in men in cities, and more in rural women than in urban areas. This distribution of the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment is associated with educational attainment and different social media accounts and media influence.
Alibek Kossumov, BSc, MBSc, PH PhD, project manager, senior researcher
Scopus ID 57116465300
ORCID ID 0000-0001-7827-6697
Web of Science Researcher ID: D-2508-2016
Aliya Kassenova, BSc, MBSc, project executor, researcher
Scopus ID 57006761200
ORCID ID 0000-0002-3670-3600
Web of Science Researcher ID: Р-7043-2017
Also, as part of the execution of tasks under the research project, it took part in the work of the European Academy of Neurologists EAN-Day (certificate, Almaty, Kazakhstan, April, 2021);
Participation in the International Educational Online Forum "Neurology Update in Kazakhstan 2021" (certificate, Almaty, Kazakhstan, April, 2021);
Participation in the International scientific-practical conference "Actual problems of clinical, experimental neurology, neurosurgery, neurophysiology" (certificate No. 27532, Almaty, Kazakhstan, May, 2021);
participation in the XIII International Conference of European Academy of Science & Research, Bonn, Germany (certificate XIII-06-190293846-21) the thesis "Depression In Cognitive Impairment In The Elderly Population Of Kazakhstan" was published.